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Alzheimer’s disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, continues to pose significant challenges to individuals, families, and healthcare systems worldwide. As its prevalence continues to rise, understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, exploring treatment options, and implementing preventive measures become increasingly crucial. Keep reading to promote the importance of brain health and delay cognitive decline.

What is Alzheimer’s Disease?

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive brain disorder that gradually erodes memory, cognitive abilities, and the capacity to perform basic tasks. It typically manifests in older people aged 65 and above.

Causes of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with these multiple potential causes.

Genetic factors: Certain genetic mutations such as amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) have been linked to the development of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease

Amyloid plaques and tau tangles: Accumulation of abnormal protein deposits, including amyloid plaques and tau tangles

Age: Advancing age who aged 65 or above is the most significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease

Family history: Having a family history of Alzheimer’s disease increases the risk of developing the condition especially the first-degree relatives with Alzheimer’s

Cardiovascular health conditions: High blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity

Head trauma: A history of severe head injuries, especially repeated concussions

Education and cognitive stimulation: Low education levels and limited cognitive stimulation

Unhealthy lifestyle choices: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, a sedentary lifestyle, and a poor diet, may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Memory loss, particularly recent or short-term memory
  • Difficulty with language and communication, such as finding the right words or following conversations
  • Challenges in problem-solving, planning, and decision-making
  • Confusion about time, places, and people
  • Decreased ability to perform familiar tasks, like cooking or managing finances
  • Poor judgment and impaired reasoning
  • Misplacing items and difficulty retracing steps
  • Changes in mood and behavior, including irritability, agitation, and depression
  • Social withdrawal and decreased interest in previously enjoyed activities
  • Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or excessive sleepiness
  • Hallucinations, delusions, or paranoia

Disclaimer: Please consult your physician for personalized medical advice. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions regarding a medical condition.


Medications: Several medications are used to treat Alzheimer’s disease symptoms and may help improve cognitive function and manage behavioral symptoms. These include cholinesterase inhibitors (such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine) and memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist.

Symptom management: Non-drug approaches, including creating a structured routine, providing a supportive environment, and using memory aids, can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life

Supportive care: Long-term care and support services, such as support groups, respite care, and home healthcare, can assist caregivers and families in managing the challenges associated with Alzheimer’s disease


Healthy lifestyle: Adopting a healthy lifestyle may help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. This includes regular exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, managing cardiovascular health, not smoking, and moderate alcohol consumption.

Cognitive stimulation: Engaging in mentally stimulating activities throughout life, such as reading, puzzles, learning new skills, and social interactions, may help maintain cognitive function and potentially reduce the risk of cognitive decline.

Heart-healthy habits: Protecting cardiovascular health is important, as conditions like high blood pressure and high cholesterol have been linked to a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Head injury prevention: Taking precautions to prevent head injuries is important, as severe or repeated head trauma has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.


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